There were three other regiments there in 1871:
= 2nd Bn of 18th (Royal Irish) Regiment of Foot;
= 1st Bn of 23rd (Royal Welsh Fusiliers) Regiment of Foot;
= 57th (West Middlesex) Regiment of Foot.
The 57th Regiment only had one battalion
To these you have to add Royal Marine Light Infantry and all the Corps – RA, RE, Hospital Corps etc – which are in most stations. There are no cavalry regiments listed there at least.
The reason I asked about his age is that most men were discharged between the age of 30 and 35, after completing 12 years in the army. So if his papers survive they will be filed in Kew in the section for men discharged between 1873 and 1882. If he was in the infantry you do not need to know his regiment, as they are all stored together in alphabetical order. However, there are other boxes for the RA etc.
If you cannot get to Kew Findmypast are putting them online (due 2011). If his papers have not survived you will need to visit Kew and look in the Muster Books, and for these you will need the regiment.
Was he at the same address for both the wedding and the 1871 Census? And do you know where were his children born, and when? http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/militaryhistory/army/step4.htm